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Given an list of integers called , return if any value appears at least twice in the array. Return if every element in the input list is distinct.

For example, if the input list was , then return because the number 1 shows up twice.

However, if the input was then return , because every element of the list is distinct.

A brute-force way to solve this would be to generate all pairs of elements, and check if the pair contains a duplicated element. Here's that code:

Note that the outer loop iterates from the first element to the second-to-last element, and the inner loop iterates from the element after the current element to the last element. This ensures that we generate each pair only once.

The runtime complexity is $O(n^{2})$, because there are $\frac{n * (n-1)}{2}$ pairs of integers to check. The space complexity is $O(1)$ because we don't really use any extra space.

Typically, during an interview, you are expected to come up with other solutions, that trade-off on time and space. Here's a solution which sorts the data first, which takes only $O(n*log(n))$ time to first sort the input list.

Then, we iterate through the list, and check if each value is the same as the value directly before it. If they are the same, that means there was a duplicate.

As a reminder, Python dictionaries are designed to provide efficient key-value lookups, and their average-case performance is typically constant time. We can use a dictionary to track elements we've seen, and if we come across a list element that's been seen before, we know there are duplicates.

However, if we get to the end of the list, and never encounter an element that's already a part of our dictionary, then we know there are no duplicates. Here's code to do that:

This method runs in $O(n)$ since it's just one pass across the input list, but the downside is there is extra space consumed. This algorithm's space time complexity $O(n)$ which is used to store the dictionary.

Python