11 ZipRecruiter SQL Interview Questions (Updated 2024)

Updated on

June 23, 2024

At ZipRecruiter, SQL is typically used for extracting pertinent candidate and job data, and analyzing recruitment trends for optimizing the job-matching algorithm. Because of this, ZipRecruiter almost always asks SQL coding questions in interviews for Data Science, Analytics, and & Data Engineering jobs.

Thus, to help you prep, here’s 11 ZipRecruiter SQL interview questions – can you solve them?

Ziprecruiter SQL interview Questions

11 ZipRecruiter SQL Interview Questions

SQL Question 1: Identifying Power Users

In the context of ZipRecruiter, a 'power user' might be a company or recruiter that posts jobs quite frequently or a job seeker who applies to jobs very frequently. For this case, let's focus on identifying companies that post the most number of jobs.

Imagine you are given a table indicating the jobs posted by various companies. The table has the following fields:

  • (int): unique identifier for the job
  • (int): unique identifier for the company
  • (timestamp): when the job was posted

The question is: Write a SQL query to identify the top 5 companies that have posted the most number of jobs in the last 30 days.

Example Input:


In this query, we first filter out jobs that were posted in the last 30 days. Then, we count the number of jobs posted by each company using . Finally, we order the companies in descending order by the number of jobs posted and select the top 5. This gives us the 5 'power users' of ZipRecruiter's job posting service.

To practice a related customer analytics question on DataLemur's free interactive SQL code editor, try this recently asked Microsoft SQL interview question: Microsoft SQL Interview Question: Teams Super User

SQL Question 2: Department Salaries

Imagine there was a table of ZipRecruiter employee salaries, along with which department they were in. Write a query to compare the average salary of employees in each department to the company's average salary for March 2024. Return the comparison result as 'higher', 'lower', or 'same' for each department. Display the department ID, payment month (in MM-YYYY format), and the comparison.

Write a SQL query for this problem interactively on DataLemur:

Department vs. Company Salary

The answer is LONG – 30+ lines of SQL. You can find a step-by-step solution with hints here: Department vs. Company Salary.

SQL Question 3: How can you select unique records from a table?

The clause in SQL allows you to select records that are unique, eliminating duplicates.

For example, if you had a table of ZipRecruiter employees, and wanted to see what are all the unique job titles that currently worked at the company, you could write the following query:

ZipRecruiter SQL Interview Questions

SQL Question 4: Calculating Average Job Applicant Ratings Per Month with Window Functions

ZipRecruiter has a system where both employers and job applicants can rate each other after an interaction. You are given a dataset where each row represents a rating given by an employer to a job applicant after an interaction.

Example Input:

935445901/14/2022 00:00:00352615
501912201/18/2022 00:00:00362983
728715402/02/2022 00:00:00352614
346275202/26/2022 00:00:00323513
7456109803/03/2022 00:00:00362982

In this table, is a unique identifer for each rating, is the identifier for employers, is when the rating was given, is the identifier for job applicants, is the score out of 5 given by the employer.

Write a SQL query to find out the average rating given by employers to each applicant for each month of the year.

Example Output:


In this SQL query, we first extract the month from the date using the function. Then, we calculate the average rating for each applicant for each month using the function with a window defined by the clause. This gives us the average rating given by employers to each applicant for each month.

Pro Tip: Window functions are a frequent SQL interview topic, so practice all the window function problems on DataLemur

DataLemur Window Function SQL Questions

SQL Question 5: What's a correlated sub-query? How does it differ from a non-correlated sub-query?

A correlated sub-query is a sub-query that depends on the outer query and cannot be executed separately. It uses the outer query to filter or transform data by referencing a column from it, and the outer query uses the results of the inner query. In contrast, a non-correlated sub-query is independent of the outer query and can be executed on its own. It does not reference any columns from the outer query and is used to retrieve additional data needed by the outer query.

Here is an example of a correlated sub-query:

This query selects the and total sales of all ZipRecruiter customers in the sales table whose are greater than the average of their own customer group. The sub-query in this case is correlated with the outer query, as it references the column from the outer query ().

Here is an example of a non-correlated sub-query:

The sub-query in this case is non-correlated, as it does not reference any columns from the outer query.

Performance-wise, correlated sub-queries are generally slower to execute, as they have to be re-evaluated for each row of the outer query, while non-correlated sub-queries are faster, as they only have to be executed once.

SQL Question 6: Filtering Customers with Specific Conditions

Given the table customer, your task is to write a SQL query to return all records of customers who live in "Los Angeles" or "New York", are younger than 30 years, and have a subscription status of "active". Note that all dates are in the format YYYY-MM-DD.

Example Input:
01Mike1996-03-12Los Angelesactive
02John1992-07-14San Franciscoactive
03Emma1994-04-08Los Angelesinactive
04Isabella1995-10-28New Yorkactive
05Jacob1985-05-06Los Angelesactive
06Olivia1988-12-12New Yorkinactive
07Ethan1993-01-22New Yorkactive
08Ava2002-11-11Los Angelesactive


You can use the WHERE clause along with AND and OR operators to filter data. We also use the AGE function to calculate the age from the birthdate.

This query selects all records from "customers" where the city is either 'Los Angeles' or 'New York', the age calculated between the current date and their birthday is less than 30 years, and the subscription_status is 'active'. The keyword IN is used here to check both cities, which is more convenient than using multiple OR conditions. The AGE function calculates the age from the given birthday to the current timestamp ('now'), discarding any time parts.

SQL Question 7: Can you explain the distinction between an inner and a full outer join?

An inner join only includes rows from both tables that satisfy the join condition, whereas a full outer join includes all rows from both tables, regardless of whether they match the join condition or not.

To demonstrate each kind, Imagine you were working on a Advertising Analytics project at ZipRecruiter and had two database tables: an table that contains data on Google Ads keywords and their bid amounts, and a table with information on product sales and the Google Ads keywords that drove those sales.

An retrieves rows from both tables where there is a match in the shared key or keys. For example, an INNER JOIN between the table and the table could be performed using the keyword column as the shared key. This would retrieve only the rows where the keyword in the table matches the keyword in the table.

A retrieves all rows from both tables, regardless of whether there is a match in the shared key or keys. If there is no match, values will be returned for the columns of the non-matching table.

SQL Question 8: Calculate Click-through Conversion Rates for ZipRecruiter

Suppose you are a data analyst working at ZipRecruiter. Your team is interested in studying the behavior of users who view job listings and then proceed to apply. You are given two tables: , which records every time a user views a job listing, and , which records every time a user applies for a job. The question is to calculate the click-through conversion rate, which is the number of users who apply for a job after viewing it divided by the total number of users who viewed the job.

Here is an example of the and tables:

Example Input:
101106/08/2022 00:00:0050001
102206/10/2022 00:00:0050001
103306/18/2022 00:00:0050002
104407/26/2022 00:00:0050003
105507/05/2022 00:00:0050001
Example Input:
201106/08/2022 00:00:0050001
202306/18/2022 00:00:0050002
203607/26/2022 00:00:0050003
204707/05/2022 00:00:0050001
205807/05/2022 00:00:0050001


In PostgreSQL, you can solve this problem by joining the two tables on the and fields, and then calculating the click-through conversion rate. Here is a possible solution:

This query first joins the and tables so that each line represents a view and its corresponding application (if it exists). It then groups the data by , and calculates the click-through conversion rate by dividing the number of distinct users who applied for each job by the number of distinct users who viewed each job.

To practice a related problem on DataLemur's free online SQL code editor, attempt this Facebook SQL Interview question: SQL interview question asked by Facebook

SQL Question 9: Average Number of Job Applications per Company

As a data analyst at ZipRecruiter, you're asked to find out the average number of job applications each company receives for their job postings in a month. This information will help our client companies gauge the competition and adjust their hiring strategies accordingly.

Example Input:
Example Output:


This PostgreSQL query first extracts the month part of and groups by and . It then calculates average job applications for each company in each month using the AVG aggregate function and partitioning by company id. This gives us the average number of applications per month for each company.

SQL Question 10: How do you identify duplicated data in a table?

One way to find duplicatesis to use a clause and then use to find groups

You could also use the operator:

SQL Question 11: Filtering Customer Records

You have been given a task to filter the customer records from . You need to find all the customers whose first name starts with 'J' and the last name ends with 'son'.

Example Input:
Example Output:


This SQL query selects all records from the table where the first name starts with 'J' and the last name ends with 'son'. A percentage (%) sign is used as a wildcard in SQL, 'J%' will match any string that begins with 'J', and '%son' will match any string that ends with 'son'.

Preparing For The ZipRecruiter SQL Interview

The best way to prepare for a SQL interview, besides making sure you have strong SQL fundamentals, is to practice a ton of real SQL questions that were asked in recent job interviews. Beyond just solving the above ZipRecruiter SQL interview questions, you should also solve the 200+ SQL coding questions which come from companies like Facebook, Google and unicorn tech startups. DataLemur SQL Interview Questions

Each DataLemur SQL question has hints to guide you, step-by-step solutions and crucially, there is an online SQL coding environment so you can right online code up your SQL query and have it checked.

To prep for the ZipRecruiter SQL interview you can also be a great idea to practice SQL problems from other tech companies like:

However, if your SQL query skills are weak, don't worry about jumping right into solving questions – improve your SQL foundations with this free SQL tutorial.

DataLemur SQL Course

This tutorial covers SQL concepts such as grouping by multiple columns and aggreage functions like MIN()/MAX() – both of these pop up routinely in SQL job interviews at ZipRecruiter.

ZipRecruiter Data Science Interview Tips

What Do ZipRecruiter Data Science Interviews Cover?

In addition to SQL interview questions, the other types of problems to practice for the ZipRecruiter Data Science Interview include:

ZipRecruiter Data Scientist

How To Prepare for ZipRecruiter Data Science Interviews?

First, learn more about the domain – I like LinkedIn's Data Science engineering blog for that! Then, go read the book Ace the Data Science Interview.

It covers 201 interview questions sourced from companies like Microsoft, Google & Amazon. It also has a crash course covering SQL, Product-Sense & ML. And finally it's vouched for by the data community, which is why it's earned 1000+ reviews on Amazon and a 4.5-star rating.

Ace the Data Science Interview